1675: Greenwich Observatory was established by King Charles II, who laid the foundation stone.
1787: Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik. On the same day in 1788, he finished his Jupiter Symphony.
1842: The Mines Act was passed by the British Parliament, forbidding women and children to work underground.
1889: The screw bottle top was patented by Dan Rylands of Hope Glass Works, Barnsley.
1961: Britain first applied for membership of the EEC.
1990: The Magellan space probe reached Venus.
2003: The highest temperature ever recorded in the UK - 38.5C (101.3F) in Kent.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: Hugh Grosvenor, 25, was set to become the third richest person in Britain after inheriting the vast estate of his father, the Duke of Westminster.
BIRTHDAYS: Ian Anderson, rock singer (Jethro Tull), 70; Patti Austin, singer and actress, 67; Rosanna Arquette, actress, 58; Antonio Banderas, actor, 57; Charlie Dimmock, TV gardening expert, 51; Roy Keane, former footballer, football manager, 46; Lawrence Dallaglio, former English rugby captain, 45.